India is fourth largest contributor of oilseeds and Rapeseed and mustard contributes about 28.6% in total oilseeds production. After soybean and palm oil, it is third important oilseed in world. Mustard seeds and its oil are used for culinary purpose. Young leaves are used for vegetable purpose. Its oil cake is used for feeding cattle. Here are given below the major disease and pest found in mustard and their treatment.
Pest and their control:
Aphid: The pest suck the sap of the plant which results in weakening of plant and becomes pale, the plants show stunted growth and in later stages they do not bear pods.
To control, do timely sowing of crop. Avoid excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer. In infestation is observed in field, take spray of any one pesticide like Thiamethoxam@80gm or Quinalphos or Oxydemeton@250ml or Chlorpyriphos @200ml in 100-125Ltr water per acre.
Painted bug: It destroyed crop at germination stage also at maturity stage. They suck sap and leads to drying of crop.
Irrigation should be given after 3-4 weeks of sowing should help in reducing pest population. If infestation is observed in field, take spray of Malathion @ 400ml/acre.
Hairy caterpillar: Young larva feed on leaves and destroyed them completely.
If infestation is observed in field, take spray of Malathion 5% dust@15kg/acre or Dichlorvos@200ml/acre in 100-125ltr of water.
Disease and their control:
Blight: Dark brown spot with dot like bodies developed on stem, branches, leaflet and pods. In severe infestation, withering of stem and pod is observed.
For cultivation, use resistant varieties. To control the disease spraying with Indofil M-45 or Captan @ 260gm/100Ltr of water per acre should be done. If necessary repeat the spray at interval of 15days.
Downy Mildew: Whitish growth is observed on lower surface of leaves. The leaves give green or yellow coloration appearance.
Destroy debris of previous crop before sowing of crop. Spray crop with Indofil M-45 @ 400gm in 150 Ltr of water per acre for four times with interval of 15 days.
White Rust: White pustules are observed on leaves, stem and on flower. Swelling of affected part is observed. Because of infection flower become sterile.
If infestation observed in field, to control spray with Metalaxyl 8%+Mancozeb 64% @ 2gm/Ltr of water or spray with Copper oxychloride @ 25gm/Ltr of water. If necessary repeat the spray with interval of 10-15days.