Potato is most important food crop of the world. It is economical crop and referred as Poor man friend. Its origin is in South America. It is rich source of starch and vitamin. It is used as vegetable also used for making of chips. It is used for several industrial purposes for production of starch and alcohol. Potato is grown almost in all states. Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Punjab, Karnataka, Assam and Madhya Pradesh are major potato growing states.
For the better quality yield of potatoes, one should know about their harmful diseases and pest and how to get protection from this. So here is the information given regarding pest and diseases and their control:
• Pest and their control:
Aphid: Adult and nymphs, both suck the sap thus weaken the plant. If infestation of aphid and jassid observed take spray of Imidacloprid@50ml or Thiamethoxam@40 gm/acre/150ltr water.
Cut worms: They damage crop by cutting sprout at ground level. As a preventive measure use only well rotten cow dung. If infestation is observed, spray crop with Chlorpyrifos 20% EC@ 2.5ml per ltr of water. Apply Phorate 10G@4 kg/acre around plants and they cover with soil.
Epilanchna Beetle: Larva and adults damages crop by feeding on leaves. In initial phase of infestation, collect egg of beetle manually and then destroyed it away from the field. Take spray of Carbaryl@1gm per ltr of water.
White Grub: They remain in soil and damage crop by feeding on roots, stem and tubers. Infected plant show drying up. Grubs make holes in tubers. As a preventive measures, Carbofuran 3G@12kg or Thimet 10G@7kg/acre at the time of sowing.
Potato Tuber Moth: It is major pest in field as well as in storage. It make tunnel in potato and feeds on flesh. If infestation is observed take spray of Carbaryl@1gm per Ltr of water.
• Disease and their control:
Early blight: Necrotic spots observed on lower leaves. The fungus due which infestation occurred lies in soil. If infestation is observed, take spray of Mancozeb@30gm or Copper oxychloride@30gm/10ltr water at 45 days 2-3 times at 10 days interval.
Black scurf: Black speck observed on tubers. Affected plant show drying up. In infected tubers, at time of sprouting, black, brown color appear on eyes. For planting use diseased free tubers.
Late Blight: Irregular water spots are seen on infected leaves. Around the spot white powdery growth is observed. For sowing use healthy and disease free seeds. If infestation is observed take spray of Propineb@40gm/15Ltr of water.
Common scab: Light brown to dark brown lesion are appeared on infected tubers. Use diseased free seeds for planting. Avoid deep planting of tubers. Before sowing, treat seeds with Emisan email@example.com% (2.5gm/ltr of water) for five minutes.
Bacterial soft rot: At base of plant black leg appears along with browning of infected tubers also plant give yellow appearance. For sowing use healthy and disease free tubers. Before sowing treat seed with Boric Acid@3% (300gm/10Ltr of water) for 30minutes and then dried in shades.
Mosaic: Mosaic affected plants give faint yellow appearance along with stunted growth. Size and number of tuber get reduced. Take spray of Metasystox or Rogor@300ml in 200 litres of water per acre.